Design of Qum Rug (Rugman)
|Original name||قالی قم|
|Alternative name(s)||Qum Carpet|
|Common designs||Medallion, Vagireh, Boteh, Tree|
|Common colors||Beige, Red, Blue, Yellow, Camel, White, Brown, Cream|
|Dyeing method||Natural, Synthetic|
|Foundation material||Silk, Cotton|
|Knot type||Asymmetrical (Persian)|
Qum Persian rugs are among the finest handmade carpets in the world, if not the absolute finest. They are professionally woven by hand in the city of Qum, which is south of Tehran, Iran and renowned for its exceptional rugs. The carpet industry of this city is incredibly modern and greatly respected worldwide. The quality of an authentic Qum rug is extraordinary therefore, prices tend to be much higher than those made elsewhere (with the exception of Isfahan, Nain, Tabriz and a few other fine rug producing centers in Iran). One should also consider the fact that most Qum rugs take several years to complete. In some bigger pieces, it may take numerous expert weavers well over ten years to construct a single rug. There are some Qum rugs in the world today that cost several hundreds of thousands of dollars and sometimes well over a million.
Qum, also spelled Qom, is the capital city of the recently formed province of Qum in north central Iran. Qum is the second-holiest city after Meshad for Shia Muslims. Early Qum weaving productions were limited and were marketed as Kashan carpets.
Carpets from Qum began to appear after World War II. Qum weaving manufacturing is one of the most important and largest growth industries in Iran. Weavers started by making rugs and carpets of average Kashan quality, but they soon became experts in the production of wool and silk carpets. Qum manufacturers and individual weavers were creative and talented at drawing cartoon designs and implementing fashionable colors.
Carpet production grew rapidly in the city. Rugs were woven in high volume for the domestic and worldwide markets. The popularity of Qum carpets had a great impact on the economy, improving the daily lives of the people of Qum and the surrounding towns and villages.
The carpets have a cotton foundation and a wool pile or a silk foundation and a silk pile. Some carpets are also made with wool and silk highlights. The Persian (asymmetric) knot is always employed.
Qum carpet styles are floral and use traditional Persian designs such as the traditional Shah Abbas pattern in allover or medallion styles, all-over palmettes, Boteh (paisley), Garden, Herati (fish), Hunting, Lattice, Mihrab (prayer arch), Moharamat (stripes), Shrub, Tree of Life with and without birds and animals, Zili Sultan, and other creative arrangements. Some Qum patterns were inspired by European designs as well. Weavers made varieties of light and dark field tonalities. The colors were interchangeable for the borders and medallion. At times, rugs with a black background were made.
Qum was home to some important master weavers, the most famous being Rashidzadeh. He pro-duced rugs with silk foundations and silk piles woven in a high-quality grade with muted, soft coloration. Rashtizadeh products are considered valuable and an art form by experts.
Formats range from small mats to large room-size carpets. The majority of rugs in sizes of seven feet by four feet as well as small room dimensions were produced for the European market. The rugs are generally good to very fine in grade quality. Qum carpets continue to be popular worldwide and are manufactured in areas surrounding Qum to meet market demand.
- Moheban, 2015, 461-462
- Abraham Levi Moheban. 2015. The Encyclopedia of Antique Carpets: Twenty-Five Centuries of Weaving. NewYork: Princeton Architectural Press.